30 Basic Parts Of A Car Engine With Diagram

For most people, a car is a thing they fill with gas that moves them from point A to point B. But have you ever stopped and thought, how does it actually do that? What makes it move? Unless you have already adopted an electric car as your daily driver, the magic of how comes down to the internal combustion engine—that thing making noise under the hood.

While many of us think of the engine as one major component, it’s actually made up of several individual components working simultaneously. You may have heard of some of these car engine parts names but it’s important to know what their role is and how they relate to other components within the engine.

What is a Car Engine?

The engine is the heart of your car. It is a complex machine built to convert heat from burning gas into the force that turns the road wheels.

The chain of reactions which achieve that objective is set in motion by a spark, which ignites a mixture of petrol vapor and compressed air inside a momentarily sealed cylinder and causes it to burn rapidly. That is why the machine is called an internal combustion engine. As the mixture burns it expands, providing power to drive the car.

To withstand its heavy workload, the engine must be a robust structure. It consists of two basic parts: the lower, heavier section is the cylinder block, a casing for the engine’s main moving parts; the detachable upper cover is the cylinder head.

The cylinder head contains valve-controlled passages through which the air and fuel mixture enter the cylinders, and others through which the gases produced by their combustion are expelled.

The block houses the crankshaft, which converts the reciprocating motion of the pistons into rotary motion at the crankshaft. Often the block also houses the camshaft, which operates mechanisms that open and close the valves in the cylinder head. Sometimes the camshaft is in the head or mounted above it.

How Does a Car Engine Work?

Specifically, an internal combustion engine is a heat engine in that it converts energy from the heat of burning gasoline into mechanical work, or torque. That torque is applied to the wheels to make the car move.

And unless you are driving an ancient two-stroke Saab (which sounds like an old chainsaw and belches oily smoke out its exhaust), your engine works on the same basic principles whether you’re wheeling a Ford or a Ferrari.

Engines have pistons that move up and down inside metal tubes called cylinders. Imagine riding a bicycle: Your legs move up and down to turn the pedals.

Pistons are connected via rods (they’re like your shins) to a crankshaft, and they move up and down to spin the engine’s crankshaft, the same way your legs spin the bike’s—which in turn powers the bike’s drive wheel or car’s drive wheels.

Depending on the vehicle, there are typically between two and 12 cylinders in its engine, with a piston moving up and down in each.

But, where does Engine Power come from?

The internal combustion engine consists of cylinders, pistons, fuel injectors, and spark plugs. Combined, these components burn fuel and let the exhaust gas out of the cylinders. By repeating the process, it creates energy that powers the car.

But what powers those pistons up and down are thousands of tiny controlled explosions occurring each minute, created by mixing fuel with oxygen and igniting the mixture. Each time the fuel ignites is called the combustion, or power, stroke. The heat and expanding gases from this mini-explosion push the piston down in the cylinder.

Almost all of today’s internal combustion engines (to keep it simple, we’ll focus on gasoline powerplants here) are of the four-stroke variety. Beyond the combustion stroke, which pushes the piston down from the top of the cylinder, there are three other strokes: intake, compression, and exhaust.

Four Stroke Engine Cycle

#1. The Intake Stroke.

The intake stroke refers to how air and fuel enter an engine’s combustion chamber. The process behind this first step, however, varies by engine type.

In port-fuel-injected (PFI) engines, the piston moves down the cylinder while the intake valve draws an air and fuel mixture into the combustion chamber.

In gasoline-direct-injected engines (GDI), depicted in this article’s accompanying animation, fuel can be injected while the piston moves down to create a homogenous mixture or injected in a smaller amount nearer the end of the compression stroke. Most GDIs employ both depending on the duty cycle. Also, some original equipment manufacturers are even using both port and direct.

#2. The Compression Stroke.

The intake valve closes, sealing the combustion chamber. The crankshaft rotates to complete its first full revolution, and drives the piston upwards, compressing the fuel and air mixture.

#3. The Power Stroke.

A spark plug ignites the air-fuel mixture, and the resulting combustion quickly expands the gases, forcing the piston back down the cylinder.

#4. The Exhaust Stroke.

Finally, the exhaust valve opens, and the piston travels back up one last time, forcing the exhaust gas to leave the cylinder, while the piston applies a fresh coating of oil.

These four strokes of the piston create one combustion cycle and require the valves, piston, crankshaft, cylinder, piston rings and oil to work together for maximum efficiency, performance, and durability.

Now let’s look at all the parts that work together to make this happen.

Car Engine Parts Names with Diagram

Let us see a simple car engine parts diagram including all the main parts which are essential to know. Refer to the below car engine parts diagram so that we can understand the exact location of each one and how it looks.

Car Engine Parts Diagram with Names

These diagrams typically include the engine block, combustion chamber, cylinder head, pistons, crankshaft, camshaft, timing chain, valves, rocker arms, pushrods/lifters, injectors, spark plugs, oil pan, distributor, connecting rods, piston ring, flywheels.

Read More: 40 Basic Parts of a Car Explain with Name & Diagram

List Of Car Engine Parts Names

While many of us think of the engine as one major component, it’s made up of several individual components working simultaneously.

Car Engine Parts Diagram with names

The list of Car Engine parts Name:

A typical internal combustion engine has around 200 parts that need to be maintained and possibly replaced if they wear out. An electric vehicle takes that number down to around 20 parts.

But don’t worry, we are only discussing the main parts of a car engine.

Parts Of A Car Engine

The different parts that make up your car’s engine consist of: the engine block (cylinder block), combustion chamber, cylinder head, pistons, crankshaft, camshaft, timing chain, valve train, valves, rocker’s arms, pushrods/lifters, fuel injectors, and spark plugs.

#1. The Engine Block

Engine Block

An engine block – also known as a cylinder block – contains all of the major components where the combustion process takes place in a reciprocating engine.

Usually made from an aluminum alloy (cast iron in older engines), it houses the cylinders and their components, the water-cooling system and the crankcase.

Its metal construction gives it strength and the ability to transmit heat from the combustion processes to the integral cooling system in an efficient manner.

This water jacket, as it’s sometimes known, is supplied by the car’s radiator, which cools the water before it is pumped back into the engine block.

Without cooling, the engine quickly becomes less efficient and would ultimately seize.

The water jacket surrounds the engine’s cylinders, of which there are usually four, six or eight and which contain the pistons.

When the cylinder head is in place (it secures the engine block), together with the camshaft, the pistons move up and down within the cylinders and turn the crankshaft, which ultimately drives the wheels.

The oil pan sits at the base of the engine block. This reservoir provides lubrication for the engine’s moving parts and its level is checked electronically, via the car’s dashboard, or with the use of a dipstick, which is installed in the engine block.

The engine oil should be changed at prescribed intervals – this is done via the sump plus, which sits on the base of the block, or by using a vacuum pump and a hose inserted through the dipstick hole. The oil filter should be changed at the same time.

Common Symptoms of Bad Engine Block:

#2. The Piston

Engine Piston

A piston is a main part of your car engine. It’s made from a cylindrical piece of metal with piston rings that help to form an air-tight seal once the piston is installed within the engine cylinder. The piston is attached via a piston pin or gudgeon to a connecting rod, which in turn is connected to the crankshaft.

In four-stroke (petrol and diesel) car engines, the intake, compression, combustion, and exhaust process takes place above the piston in the cylinder head, which forces the piston to move up and down (or in and out in a horizontally opposed – or flat – engine) within the cylinder, which causes the crankshaft to turn.

Internal combustion engines can operate with just a single cylinder and therefore one piston (motorcycles and lawnmowers) or as many as 12, but most automobiles have four, six, or eight.

Pistons also feature in external combustion engines, otherwise known as steam engines, where water is heated in a boiler and the resulting steam is used to propel a piston in external cylinders, which then drive the wheels.

Most Common Symptoms for Bad Piston:

  • White or gray exhaust smoke
  • Excessive oil consumption
  • Low power for acceleration
  • Overall loss of power or poor performance

#3. The Crankshaft


An engine crankshaft is essentially the parts of the car engine. The crankshaft runs inside the bottom end of a car’s motor and converts the vertical movement of the pistons into horizontal rotational movement, which ultimately drives the wheels via the gearbox.

In today’s cars, the crankshaft consists of evenly spaced ‘throws’ (there are four in a four-cylinder engine, as shown below), which are attached to the bottom of the pistons by connecting rods. These ‘throws’ are offset from the axis of the crankshaft, which is what creates the rotational energy.

The crankshaft is attached to the engine by large bearings at either end. It connects to the flywheel, and through that, the clutch.

When the clutch is engaged, the rotational energy of the crankshaft is transmitted through the gearbox and on through the differential to the driveshafts, which are attached to the wheels, hence creating the car’s ability to move.

Symptoms of a Bad or Failing Crankshaft Position Sensor:

  • Issues Starting the Vehicle.
  • Intermittent Stalling.
  • Check Engine Light Comes On.
  • Uneven Acceleration.
  • Engine Misfires or Vibrates.
  • Rough Idle and/or Vibrating Engine.
  • Reduced Gas Mileage.

#4. The Camshaft


A camshaft is a relatively basic part of car engine – a simple length of rod, or shaft, with shaped lobes positioned along it, these have been christened ‘cam lobes’. When the shaft is rotated, the shape of the cam allows it to act upon a valve or switch to a degree matching the severity of its shape – with the speed of rotation controlling the rate of action.

In a modern internal combustion engine, they are typically, but not necessarily, positioned directly above the cylinder banks where they act to control the valves. Their calibration precisely controls the amount of air-fuel mixture that enters the chamber, and how efficiently the spent exhaust gases from the previous ignition can exit the chamber making way for the next charge.

This makes them not only critical to the operation of an engine, but because the opening and closing of the valves must be carefully and perfectly synchronized with the movements of pistons, they also have a drastic effect on performance.

To ensure this timing, the camshafts are connected via a timing belt or chain to the turning of the crankshaft – which is directly moves the pistons inside the cylinder. Moreover, the shape of the cams themselves is also carefully crafted to control the speed at which the valves open and close. This is better known as variable valve timing.

Symptoms of a Bad Camshaft:

  • Active or flashing check engine light.
  • Loss of power.
  • Steady popping/backfire in the intake manifold or exhaust (extreme wear).
  • Loud ticking or tapping sounds.
  • Metal debris in the engine oil.
  • Cylinder misfire.
  • Increased emissions because of misfiring.
  • Visible signs of damage.

#5. The Connecting Rod

Connecting Rod

A connecting rod is an engine part that transfers motion from the piston to the crankshaft and functions as a lever arm. Connecting rods are commonly made from cast aluminum alloy and are designed to withstand dynamic stresses from combustion and piston movement.

The small end of the connecting rod connects to the piston with a piston pin. The piston pin, or wrist pin, provides a pivot point between the piston and connecting rod. Spring clips, or piston pin locks, are used to hold the piston pin in place.

The big end of the connecting rod connects to the crankpin journal to provide a pivot point on the crankshaft. Connecting rods are produced as one-piece or two-piece components.

A rod cap is the removable section of a two-piece connecting rod that provides a bearing surface for the crankpin journal. The rod cap is attached to the connecting rod with two cap screws for installation and removal from the crankshaft.

Symptoms of a Bad Connecting Rod:

  • Low Compression
  • Engine Knocking Sounds (Rod Knock)
  • Low Oil or Oil Pressure
  • Visibly Bent or Damaged Rod
  • Seized Engine

#6. Timing Belts

What is a Timing Belt

The timing belt is an integral part of your vehicle’s engine, keeping many of the moving parts operating together with precise timing, to produce optimum efficiency and power.

The job of the timing belt is to harmonize crankshaft and camshaft rotation, and if both are synced up properly, then your vehicle’s pistons and valves will operate correctly.

Each cylinder has intake valves that open to allow air and fuel into the combustion chamber. Once the proper amount of air and fuel has entered the chamber, the camshaft closes the valves and the piston moves up in the cylinder, compressing the fuel/air mixture.

The spark plug then ignites the mixture and it explodes, forcing the piston to move to back down the cylinder and rotating the crankshaft.

At that point, the camshaft causes the exhaust valve to open, allowing the exhaust gases produced in the explosion to exit the cylinder, and the process starts over again.

All the valves and the piston need to move in a carefully coordinated dance for the process to work effectively, without blowing up the engine. The rotation of the crankshaft is transmitted through the timing belt to move the camshaft.

So, no matter if you’re driving a brand-new car or a used vehicle that’s years old, you’ll want to be certain you have a working timing belt.

Signs Your Car Needs a New Timing Belt:

No matter if you have a timing chain or a rubber belt under your hood, problems with either part are easy to notice.

  • The engine misfires.
  • A ticking noise coming from the engine
  • Oil leaks from the front of the motor
  • The engine acts up between 2000 – 4000 RPM.
  • More smoke and fumes than normal
  • The engine won’t turn over.

#7. Spark Plugs

spark plug

A spark plug is an electrical device used in an internal combustion engine to produce a spark which ignites the air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber.

As part of the engine’s ignition system, the spark plug receives high-voltage electricity (generated by an ignition coil in modern engines and transmitted via a spark plug wire) which it uses to generate a spark in the small gap between the positive and negative electrodes.

The timing of the spark is a key factor in the engine’s behavior, and the spark plug usually operates shortly before the combustion stroke commences.

Symptoms of bad spark plugs can include:

  • Reduced gas mileage.
  • Lack of acceleration.
  • Hard starts.
  • Engine misfires.
  • Rough idling.

#8. Cylinder Head

Cylinder Head

A cylinder head is usually located on the top of the engine block. They have to withstand huge pressures and very high temperatures, while retaining their shape and form to seal the cylinder block via the head gasket. They’re key to controlling airflow in and out of the cylinders and fuel deployment.

The cylinder head also holds the injectors and valves – and contains more moving parts than any other part of the engine.

The inside of the cylinder head contains a number of passages – known as ports or tracks – and the air mix travels along these to the inlet valves. Other tracks inside the cylinder head are the route by which the exhaust gases travel when leaving the main engine block.

Symptoms of a Cracked Cylinder Head:

  • White Smoke (Steam) From the Exhaust Pipe
  • Low Coolant Level
  • Engine Overheating
  • Rough Running and Misfiring
  • Combustion Gases in the Cooling System
  • Illuminated Warning Lights
  • Coolant-Oil Intermix

#9. The Oil Pan

The oil pan is attached to the bottom of the engine with bolts and is the reservoir for oil that gets pumped throughout the engine to lubricate, clean and cool moving parts. A pump forces the oil from the pan through a filter to remove dirt and other debris before it circulates through the engine.

The pan is usually made of steel or aluminum and typically holds from four to six quarts of oil, depending on the engine. The oil dipstick extends into the oil pan and measures the oil level in the reservoir.

A drain plug on the bottom can be removed to drain oil. Oil leaks are common on engines as they accumulate miles, and oil pans can be one source of leaks or seepage. Gaskets or seals installed where the pan attaches to the engine block may wear out and allow leaks.

Drain plugs can leak if they are overtightened or, in some cases, if washers aren’t replaced when the oil is changed. Pans also can be damaged when a vehicle goes off-road (whether intentionally or by accident) and hits a rock or other hard object.

Symptoms of a Bad Oil Pan:

  • The low oil warning light comes on.
  • You see a puddle of oil under your car.
  • Your oil level has dropped unexpectedly.
  • Your engine is overheating.
  • You notice a burning smell coming from the engine.

#10. Engine Valve

engine valves

Gases flow into and out of the combustion chamber through passages in the cylinder head called ports. This flow of gases is controlled by the valves. There are two sets of valves – one set to control the intake and one set for the exhaust.

The valve which allows the mixture into the cylinder is the inlet valve; the one through which the spent gases escape is the exhaust valve. They are designed to open and close at precise moments, to allow the engine to run efficiently at all speeds.

The valves are controlled by a camshaft which, at the correct time, pushes each valve open – either directly or through a linkage. The valves must be synchronized with the piston so that they open and close at the correct moment on the piston’s stroke.

A timing belt or timing chain runs between the crankshaft and the camshaft, binding them together, and keeping them locked in sync.

The symptoms of bad valves include:

  • Cold Engine.
  • Off-Throttle Braking.
  • Idling.
  • Excessive Oil Consumption.
  • Excessive Smoke.
  • Loss of Engine Power.

#11. Combustion Chamber

combustion chamber

A Combustion Chamber is the area within the Cylinder where the fuel/air mix is ignited. As the Piston compresses the fuel/air mix and makes contact with the Spark Plug, the mixture is combusted and pushed out of the Combustion Chamber in the form of energy.

What happens if oil gets into the combustion chamber? Oil burning in the combustion chamber leads to blue-grey-colored exhaust gases. Oil enters the chamber past the valves and piston rings. Worn valve seals allow oil to seep into the cylinders overnight, resulting in blue-tinted exhaust fumes in the morning.

#12. Intake Manifold

Intake Manifold

The intake manifold, also known as the inlet manifold, distributes air to the engine’s cylinders, and on many cars, it also holds the fuel injectors. On older cars without fuel injection or with throttle body injection, the manifold takes in the fuel-air mixture from the carburetor/throttle body to the cylinder heads.

The manifold lets air into the combustion chamber on the intake stroke, and this air is then mixed with fuel from the injector, after which the combustion cycle continues.

The air reaches the manifold through the air cleaner assembly, which contains the car’s air filter.

The air filter stops dust and other foreign bodies from entering and damaging the engine, so it’s vital that you regularly change it.

Inlet manifolds are usually made from aluminum or cast iron, although some cars use plastic manifolds.

Symptoms Of a Bad Intake Manifold:

#13. Exhaust Manifold

Exhaust Manifold

Bolted directly to the engine block, the exhaust manifold is the first section of a vehicle’s exhaust system. It funnels exhaust gases from all the cylinders and routes them to the car’s catalytic converter. V-type engines have a separate manifold for each cylinder bank.

A leak in the exhaust manifold or its gasket can allow exhaust gases to escape, which poses a health hazard to the car’s occupants and can result in erroneous readings by the oxygen sensor, triggering a check engine light. Larger holes in a manifold will produce loud exhaust noise.

Symptoms of a Cracked or Bad Exhaust Manifold:

  • Check Engine Light Will Turn On
  • Burning Smells.
  • Performance Problems or Sluggish Acceleration.
  • Poor Fuel Economy.
  • Loud Exhaust Noise
  • Visible Damage.

#14. Piston Ring

Piston Rings

A piston ring is a metallic split ring that is attached to the outer diameter of a piston in an internal combustion engine or steam engine.

The main functions of piston rings in engines are:

  • Sealing the combustion chamber so that there is minimal loss of gases to the crankcase.
  • Improving heat transfer from the piston to the cylinder wall.
  • Maintaining the proper quantity of the oil between the piston and the cylinder wall
  • Regulating engine oil consumption by scraping oil from the cylinder walls back to the sump.

Most piston rings are made from cast iron or steel.

Here are five signs it’s time to replace piston rings:

  • Engine misfires and rough idling.
  • Discolored smoke from the exhaust.
  • Poor acceleration.
  • Increased oil consumption.
  • Overheating engine.

#15. Gudgeon Pin

A gudgeon pin, also known as a wrist pin, is an important part of a car engine. It creates a connection between the connecting rod and the piston and provides a bearing for the connecting rod to pivot upon as the piston moves.

Gudgeon pins can also be used with connecting rods and wheels or cranks. In very early engine designs, including those driven by steam, and many very large stationary or marine engines, the gudgeon pin is located in a sliding crosshead that connects to the piston via a rod. A gudgeon is a pivot or journal.

Generally, the term “gudgeon pin” is used in the United Kingdom, while in the United States and Canada, the preferred term is “wrist pin.”

#16. Cam

A cam is a rotating or sliding piece in a mechanical linkage used especially in transforming rotary motion into linear motion. It is often a part of a rotating wheel (e.g. an eccentric wheel) or shaft that strikes a lever at one or more points on its circular path.

In the engine, the camshaft is a shaft with a number of cams attached, this cam converts the camshaft rotary motion into the valve linear motion. It is also responsible for the opening and closing timing of the valve.

The shape of the cams greatly affects the engine’s characteristics and performance. When the camshaft is rotated, the shape of the cam allows it to act upon a valve or switch to a degree matching the severity of its shape.

If the cam is in bad shape then it affects the timing of the air-fuel mixture in and out of combustion chambers.

#17. Flywheel

In a manual transmission, the flywheel is a thick metal disc. It’s typically made of cast iron, steel or, in some cases, aluminum. It’s extremely rigid to prevent flexing or warpage during use. The edge of the flywheel has a row of gear teeth that engage with the engine’s starter motor.

The flywheel is firmly bolted to a flange on the transmission side of the crankshaft inside the bell housing. On the side facing the manual transmission, the surface is machined flat for the clutch disc to grab onto.

But what does the flywheel do? It has a few different purposes:

The flywheel provides mass for rotational inertia to keep your car’s engine running. Otherwise, the engine will stall when you let your foot off the accelerator.

It balances the engine. A flywheel is specifically weighted to the car’s crankshaft to smooth out the rough feeling caused by a slight imbalance.

It allows for an electric starter. The starter motor engages the starter ring on the edge of the flywheel to begin engine rotation. Most importantly for drivers, the flywheel connects the engine with the transmission via a clutch to transfer power to the wheels.

When your foot is on the clutch pedal, the clutch disc is disengaged from the flywheel. This is how a car can sit still at idle with the shifter in gear, or how a car can coast to a stop.

But when the pedal is released, the clutch disc will press firmly against the flywheel. When this happens, the transmission input shaft rotates at the same speed as the engine’s crankshaft.

Symptoms of a Bad Flywheel:

  • Slipping Gears.
  • Cannot Change Gears.
  • Burning Odor.
  • Vibrations of the Clutch (Clutch Chatter).
  • Unable to Start, or Inconsistent Starts.
  • Engine Stalling.
  • Engine Vibrations with Clutch Engaged.

#18. Head Gasket


The head gasket is an important part of a car engine, a head gasket provides the seal between the engine block and cylinder head(s).

The head gasket is a vital component within the combustible engine. The head gasket ensures the pressure created from the spark plug’s ignition of fuel vapors remains within the combustion chamber.

The combustion chamber contains the pistons and needs a high amount of pressure to ensure the pistons continue to fire appropriately.

Additionally, oil and coolant have equally important jobs but, in order to perform their tasks efficiently, they cannot mix. The head gasket keeps the chambers separated to ensure there is no cross-contamination of fluids.

Bad head gasket symptoms:

  • White smoke coming from the tailpipe.
  • Bubbling In the Radiator and Coolant Reservoir.
  • unexplained coolant loss with no leaks.
  • Milky white coloration in the oil.
  • Engine overheating.

#19. Cylinder Liner

What Is a Cylinder Liner

It is a cylinder that is fitted to the engine block to form the cylinder and is one critical function part that forms the engine interior.

Cylinder Liners form the inner wall of the cylinder, in direct contact to the piston rings that slide along the sleeve surface. Cylinder liners have excellent characteristics for a sliding surface as they are designed with high anti-galling properties.

Although the sliding surface is covered by a thin oil film for lubrication, the oil is retained, along with glaze that naturally forms in metal-to-metal contact. This causes less wear on the cylinder liner and the piston ring. Also, this natural lubrication allows for less consumption of oil as the engine runs.

As the engine works on compressed and rapidly expanding gas (combustion), sealing the chambers is a critical factor to keep engines running efficiently and safely.

This is where cylinder liners come in. The cylinder liners are manufactured with tight tolerances in order to prevent the compressed gas and combusted gas from escaping. Being in contact with high temperature and pressure, cylinder liners should be resistant to failure in such conditions.

#20. Crankcase

The crankcase is the central part of a car engine. It houses the entire crank mechanism including pistons, cylinders and connecting rods. Accessories, the transmission/gearbox and the engine control system with cylinder head are attached to the crankcase.

Due to the oil and cooling channels required for cooling and lubrication purposes, the crankcase is the most complex cast part in a combustion engine.

#21. Engine Distributor

A distributor is a part of the engine ignition system that distributes high-voltage electrical power to each cylinder’s spark plug at the correct time to power the engine.

The purpose of the car distributor is to send high-voltage electricity from the ignition coil to the spark plugs in the right sequence to deliver a spark which ignites the fuel/air mixture to run the engine.

The distributor consists of several parts, including the rotor arm, ignition points or electronic ignition and distributor cap that connect to the spark plug cables. Each component works in unison to keep the car engine running smoothly.

More modern cars now contain an electronic ignition system with computer-controlled sensors that determine when electricity is sent through the spark plugs.

If a distributor fails, your vehicle might exhibit a series of performance problems, produce loud noises, and increase exhaust emissions.

Signs you might have a faulty distributor:

#22. Distributor O Ring

The distributor o-ring simply seals the distributor housing with the engine to prevent oil leaks at the base of the distributor.

When the o-ring fails it can cause oil leaks from the base of the distributor, which can lead to other problems.

Usually, a bad or failing distributor o-ring will produce a few symptoms that can alert the driver of a potential problem that should be serviced.

If the distributor O-ring starts leaking, oil and grime will build up on the outside of the intake and on the exterior of the distributor. One way to prevent this from occurring is to have the vehicle serviced and “tuned up” every 30,000 miles.

Symptoms of a Bad or Failing Distributor O Ring:

  • Oil leaking from the base of the distributor.
  • Lack of power.
  • The engine is running rough.
  • Engine misfire.

#23. Cylinder Headcover

Cylinder head covers effectively serve to seal off the cylinder head space from an external perspective of the engine.

In view of the operational activity of the internal combustion engine, Blow-by gases from the combustion process and oil drops from the lubricant system of the engine are accessible within the cylinder head.

#24. Rubber Grommet

Rubber grommets are commonly used in the automotive industry to prevent metal parts from chafing, prevent vibration, and seal engine parts. Due to their high abrasion and temperature resistance, they’re perfect for everyday automotive use. They allow engine parts to run better and last much longer.

#25. Oil Filter

A car’s oil filter does two important things: filter waste and keep oil in the right place, at the right time. Your engine can’t perform its best without clean motor oil, and your motor oil can’t perform its best unless the oil filter is doing its job.

If motor oil is the lifeblood of your engine, then the oil filter is like the kidneys! In your body, kidneys filter waste and remove extra fluid to keep things healthy and humming along.

Your car’s oil filter removes waste, too. It captures harmful debris, dirt, and metal fragments in your motor oil to keep your car’s engine running smoothly.

Without the oil filter, harmful particles can get into your motor oil and damage the engine. Filtering out the junk means your motor oil stays cleaner, longer. Cleaner oil means better engine performance.

Over time, dust and contaminants accumulate to clog up the filter, increasing the risk of impurities and lowering oil pressure.

Not replacing the filter can lead to unfiltered oil circulating throughout the engine; ultimately causing irreparable damage to your car’s internal parts.

Once you’ve driven 3000 miles, the oil has passed through the filter approximately 12,000 times. This is usually considered the right time to get your oil filter changed. Many manufacturers recommend replacing your oil filter each time you have your oil changed.

#26. Camshaft Pulley

A cam pulley is part of the engine’s timing system used to control the rate of rotation of the camshaft, the component that controls the poppet valves responsible for air intake and exhaust in the cylinders. The cam pulley articulates with the timing chain to rotate the camshaft in synchronicity with the crankshaft.

Most crankshaft pulleys have a rubber ring between the internal and external parts of the pulley to dampen engine vibrations which come from the crankshaft. This prevents the engine vibrations from transferring to the accessory driving belt.

One of the most common symptoms of a faulty camshaft pulley is unusual noise. When the camshaft pulley becomes worn or damaged, it can create various noises that are easily noticeable. These noises can include rattling, ticking, grinding, or squealing sounds.

#27. Engine Starter Motor

The starter is a small motor, powered by the battery. It gets the engine of your car running. A starter relay sits between the battery and the starter motor, transmitting power. Without a properly working starter relay and motor, you won’t be able to start your vehicle and may need a tow.

As you turn the key or press the starter, power is sent to the ignition system to fire the spark plugs, and to a larger magnetic switch, which sends a rush of power direct from the battery to the starter.

That magnetic switch is called the solenoid, and is typically bolted to the starter itself, both switching high amperage power and causing the gears to mesh.

When the electromagnet is engaged, the solenoid plunger connects the thick battery cable to windings within the starter to actually turn the electric motor, plus it pushes a rod, engaging a fork which in turn pushes a pinion gear (connected to the motor) to automatically engage with the flywheel.

Signs of a Bad Starter:

  • Whirring, grinding, or clicking sounds when trying to start your car.
  • A loud single click while trying to start the vehicle with no engine crank.
  • The instrument cluster, headlights, and radio work normally, but nothing happens when you turn the key.

#28. Water Pump

A water pump in a car is a parts of the vehicle’s cooling system that circulates coolant through the engine to help regulate its temperature. The water pump is near the block’s front, and the engine’s belts typically drive it.

The water pump plays a critical role in maintaining the engine’s proper operating temperature; if it fails, the engine can become damaged or seized.

In most vehicles, the engine turns the water pump’s belt, which turns the water pump’s axle.

  • The axle is connected to a series of vanes, which also rotate with the axle.
  • The turning motion creates suction and pulls the water from the radiator.

When the water reaches the pump, centrifugal force throws it against the pump’s outer walls and down a drain to the engine block. The water travels through the cylinder heads and drains back to the radiator, where the process starts again.

Water pumps on modern cars often last more than 100,000 miles, while older models might need a replacement between 60,000 and 100,000 miles.

Expect to pay about $900 for the installation of a replacement water pump at a dealership, but the expense varies by vehicle.

Symptoms of a Failing Water Pump in Your Car:

  • Coolant Leak.
  • Engine Overheating.
  • High Pitched, Harmonic Whining Noises.
  • Water Pump Rust and Corrosion.
  • Steam comes out from under your hood.
  • Holes or leakage system on the dry side of the water pump.

#29. Turbocharger And Supercharger

Turbochargers and superchargers are forced induction systems. These systems use compressors to push compressed air into the engine. The compressed air allows for extra oxygen to reach the engine, which helps create an extra boost of power.

The main difference between turbochargers and superchargers is their energy source. Turbochargers use the vehicle’s exhaust gas; two fans – a turbine fan and a compressor fan – rotate from exhaust gas. Conversely, superchargers are powered directly by the engine; a belt pulley drives gears that cause a compressor fan to rotate.

Both turbochargers and superchargers are effective methods to increase the power and performance of an engine. However, turbochargers are preferred over superchargers, as they increase fuel economy, and reduce waste gas emission.

#30. Oil Pans Drain Bolt.

The oil drain plug is a screw plug made of metal or plastic. The oil drain plug with sealing ring seals the drain opening. This opening is needed to drain waste oil when changing the oil before refilling.

The oil drain plug is located at the lowest point of the oil pan so that the oil contained therein can flow out completely by its own gravity and the entire system thereby emptied independently.

If your engine oil level is dropping, one of the first things you should check is the oil drain plug to make sure it’s not leaking.

There can be several reasons why your drain plug is leaking. Your plug may use a crush washer, a gasket or a combination of these two components to help seal it. If the washer is missing or deformed or if the gasket has dried out or torn, then these may be responsible for the leak.

It’s also possible that the plug was installed too tightly, causing the threads to be damaged and oil to leak out past them.

If this seems to be the case, or if the plug feels loose, it’s best to take your vehicle to a qualified mechanic who can decide whether the drain plug socket needs to be re-bored, or if it can be fixed using a chemical sealant.

Read more: 50 Basic Parts of a Car With Name & Diagram


What Is an Engine?

An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one or more forms of energy into mechanical energy. Most modern vehicles use internal combustion engines (ICE), which ignite the fuel and use the reaction to move mechanical parts.

How Does a Car Engine Work?

The engine consists of a fixed cylinder and a moving piston. The expanding combustion gases push the piston, which in turn rotates the crankshaft. Ultimately, through a system of gears in the powertrain, this motion drives the vehicle’s wheels.

What are the different parts of an engine?

The different parts that make up your car’s engine consist of: the engine block (cylinder block), combustion chamber, cylinder head, pistons, crankshaft, camshaft, timing chain, valve train, valves, rocker’s arms, pushrods/lifters, fuel injectors, and spark plugs.

How many parts are in a car engine?

A common internal combustion engine has around 200 parts that need to be maintained and possibly replaced if they wear out. An electric vehicle takes that number down to around 20 parts.

What Engine Does My Car Have?

You can identify your car’s engine type by the VIN found in the owner’s manual or under the hood. The eighth digit contains the information on the engine.